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General Information

We want to tell you about a wonderful country — Azerbaijan, its unique nature, unique culture and long history, the inhabitants of this country — their lives, customs and traditions, a young but already plays an important role in world politics gosudarstve. Etimologi is named «Azerbaijan» is of ancient origin. It is known that the majority of the population living in the area before our era, were fire-worshipers. Thus, according to one version, the name comes from the word «Azer» which means fire, flames. According to another version, the name of the country comes from combining the words «az» and «er», which were used in ancient times the territory of Azerbaijan.
Time has preserved for us many archaeological and architectural monuments of antiquity. Stone epitaph manuscripts have come down to us from time immemorial carpet patterns say a lot to those who can, and most importantly wants them chitat. Azerbaijan — a country of ancient culture and traditions. In 12 century in Ganja city lived famous poet Nizami Ganjavi. Oguz tribes which moved here for centuries in this area assimilizirovalis with the local population, have found a deeply rooted culture and in their turn enriched it with Turkic traditions. The talented and creative powers of our nation are personified in «Kitabi Dede Gorgud», «Oguzname» «Keroglu» and many other epic monuments. This fertile, generous and friendly land was the home of many thinkers, philosophers, scientists, poets, architects, musicians and artists. According to legend Zardush (Zoroaster) was born on this earth. Azerbaijan land gave humanity such geniuses as Nizami Ganjavi, Khagani Shirvani Bahmanyar, Nasimi Fuzuli, Nasiraddin Tusi, Shah Ismail Khatai, Molla Panah Vagif, A.Bakihanov, MFAkhundov, MASabir, Dj., Huseyn Javid, J.Jabbarli, Samad Vurgun, Aliaga Vahid, Rasul Rza. Picturesque scenery of his native country was reflected in art canvases Sattar Bahlulzade, Tahir Salahov, Togrul Narimanbekov, Mikail Abdullayev and other talented masters of the brush. Our music mugam inspired such outstanding composers as Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Muslim Magomayev, Gara Garayev, Fikret Amirov, Niyazi , Arif Melikov and others to works today reverberating around the world, gave us such singers possessing magical, charming voice as Bulbul, Rashid Behbudov.

Azerbaijan has been inhabited by several tribes since ancient times. In fact, archeologically it is one of the oldest spots of human dwellings which can traced to the Azykh cave and number of other habitations dating to the Stone Age. Tribal formations in Azerbaijan started in 3rd millenium B.C. of which the Manna and Medes were very powerful and advanced tribes.
The Medes tribe invaded the Manna tribe in 6th century B.C who were eventually conquered, even after much resistance. The Medes tribes were of Indo European origins and are ancestors of modern Kurds. Their official religion then was Zoroastrism which spread through the trade of oil and gas. In developing the state of Azerbaijan, Atropatena and Caucasian Albania have played a foremost role. The origin of the name Azerbaijan has been denoted to the ruler of Atropatena- Atropat, which was later altered to its present name. During the rule of Atropatena, Azerbaijan territory was being formed and around the same time Christianity arrived in the region (3rd to 5th century). Among the historical monuments, at Transcaucasus one can get to see the country’s initial churches which were the reason for spiritual and secular transformation in the daily lives of the people. At the beginning of 6th century, Alabnic alphabet system was introduced which uplifted the education system. Culture and traditions of the then Azerbaijan’s have still been preserved in an excellent form.
In the 8th century the Arabs conquered Azerbaijan and made it a part of Arab Khalifat. Along with the Arab rulers, arrived Islam religion bringing with it new traditions and culture. The Azerbaijan’s accepted Islam and began to be known as Muslims.
In the 18th century controversy between Turkey, Russia and Iran adversely affected Azerbaijan. The Turkmanchay Treaty between Russia and Iran in 1828 divided the country in two parts with the southern part consolidated in Iran and northern with Russia.
The 20th century turned out to be a 360 degree transformation for the country as oil exploration began on a large with 95% of Russia’s oil extraction depending upon Azerbaijan. Baku became the centre of world attraction and political, socio-economic life entered into a new transition.

Territory 
The territory of Azerbaijan is 86.6 km2 (11.5% forest, 1.6% water pools, 50.0% cultivated land, including 27.0% pasture, 36.9% other lands).
The country is situated at 440 and 520 east longitude, 380 and 420 north latitude, Baku — at the 40th parallel. It borders on the south by Iran 765 km and 15 km with Turkey, to the north by Russia 390 km north-west of Georgia 480 km, on the west by Armenia in 1007 km.
The coastline is 713 km away from Baku to the North Pole 5550 km and 4440 km to the equator.
The largest lake in the world — the Caspian Sea area — 400,000 km2, the deepest point — 1025 m
The highest peak — Bazardyuzyu — height 4466 m

State Symbols 
November 17, 1990 the tricolor was restored by the decision of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and adopted as the state flag of the Autonomous Republic. At the same time the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic petitioned the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR three-color flag as the national flag of Azerbaijan.
February 5, 1991 the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan Republic considered the petition of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and approved the three-color flag the national flag of Azerbaijan.
State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of three equal horizontal stripes. The upper band — blue, middle stripe — red, lower — green. The blue color has meaning of Turkic origin of Azerbaijani nation , red color reflects the course of modernization of society and the development of democracy, the green color shows belonging to Islamic civilization. In the middle of the red stripe on both sides of the flag white crescent and eight-pointed star. The ratio of the width to its length is 1:2.

National Emblem
January 30, 1920 the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted a resolution declaring the contest for the best National emblem of the Republic. The decision stated that the winning of the emblem will be accepted on May 28. However, due to the fall of April 28, 1920 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic emblem was not approved.
November 17, 1990 Supreme Majlis of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic discussed the issue of National emblem solicited Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR on announcement of the new competition on the national emblem of Azerbaijan.
The contest was announced February 5, 1991 decision of the Supreme Council of the Azerbaijan Republic. During 1991-1992 there were tens of projects of the emblem on the discussions there were also proposals for one of the projects in 1919-1920.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Azerbaijan 19 January 1993 the Constitutional Law , according to which , with some modifications the project was approved the emblem of 1919-1920.
State Emblem of the Azerbaijan Republic symbolizes the independence of Azerbaijan. The national emblem is the image of an oriental shield placed on the arch composed of oak branches and ears. The shield background colors of the National flag of Azerbaijan there are images of eight-pointed star in the center of the star — the flames.

Nature
Favorable natural and geographical climate in Azerbaijan since ancient times created the conditions for the resettlement of people here.
Ancient authors — Herodotus (V century BC. E .), Strabo (64/63. BC. E. — 23/24 BC), Polybius (about 200 -120 BC. E .) Claudius Ptolemy (about 90-160 years.) in his works gave information about Azerbaijan, its boundaries, geographical location, rivers, towns, tribes living here, the Caspian Sea, that it has no connection with any other sea. Subsequently, Arab geographers and travelers Ibn Khordabex (approximately 820/826 -912 / 913), Abu Ishaq Istahri (820 -934), the Iranian scientist Reshidaddin Fazlullah (1247 — 1318), Azerbaijani scientist Mohamed Nakhchivan (end of the XIII century — 2nd half of the XIV century) and others wrote about the economy, the administrative division of Azerbaijan, the mountains and rivers, cities, distance between them, the trade routes . Albanian (Caucasian) historian Musa Kalankatly (VIII — VIII century) in his work «The History of Albania» described Albania as a nice country with rich nature, large population, pointed to the existence of Albania fertile land, lush gardens and green fields. On the world map Venetian F. Mauro (1459), maps Alsharifi (1601), a German scientist and traveler A. Oleariya (1647), as well as on the map «Eastern Caucasus and the Caspian Sea», composed by order of Peter I (1720) and printed in 1723, the year were given settlements of Azerbaijan, its lakes, rivers , etc.
Azerbaijani geographer Abdurrashid Bakuvi suggested the climate of Azerbaijan, Baku nature, Haji Zeynalabdin Shirvani and Abbasgulu Bakixanov yeah — about the geography of Azerbaijan. In the study of the territory of Azerbaijan and also contributed V. Abih, I. Figurovky, A. Zakharov and others. A comprehensive study in Azerbaijan started in the Soviet era were created maps of different scales, scientific atlases. In a comprehensive study of the republic the special role played by the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan.

Relief
November 17, 1990 the tricolor was restored by the decision of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and adopted as the state flag of the Autonomous Republic. At the same time the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic petitioned the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR three-color flag as the national flag of Azerbaijan.
February 5, 1991 the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan Republic considered the petition of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and approved the three-color flag the national flag of Azerbaijan.
State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of three equal horizontal stripes. The upper band — blue, middle stripe — red, lower — green. The blue color has meaning of Turkic origin of Azerbaijani nation , red color reflects the course of modernization of society and the development of democracy, the green color shows belonging to Islamic civilization. In the middle of the red stripe on both sides of the flag white crescent and eight-pointed star. The ratio of the width to its length is 1:2.

Climate
The climate in Azerbaijan mainly influenced by geographical location, topography and the Caspian Sea. Here there are semi-desert climate, dry steppe climate, subtropical, middle and cold climate. According V. V. Keppenu, observed in Azerbaijan 8 of 11 of the world’s climates. Dry subtropical climate characterized Absheron and Kur-Araz lowland. Humid subtropical climate is observed only in the south of the Talysh Mountains , typical for downstream communities and the Lankaran Lowland. Temperate climate, observed mainly in the forested hills of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus is divided into dry , moderately warm, dry, moderately warm wet and cold. Cold climate is typical of high mountain ranges and peaks Greater and Lesser Caucasus, belts alpine and subalpine meadows. While in the lowlands the average air temperature in the lowlands is 15 ° C, in the mountainous areas it varies from 0 ° C and below. July temperatures in the central plain areas is 27 °, in mountain areas — 5 °.
The absolute maximum is 43 °, the absolute minimum — 30 °. These high rates were observed in Nakhchivan and high mountains. Precipitation is also unevenly distributed across the country. During the year, the Apsheron Peninsula and the band Araz Nakhchivan AR precipitation is less than 200 mm. In the Kura- Araz lowland rainfall observed at 200 — 300 mm in the north- eastern slopes of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus — 600-800 mm. On the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus, 2000-2500 m elevations reach rainfall 1200-1500 mm. The highest rainfall in the south slopes of the Lankaran Lowland and the Talysh Mountains, 1200 — 1700 mm.
Prevailing winds in the northern (Apsheron Peninsula), south-west (Kur-Araz lowland) and southern (Lankaran lowlands) directions.

Inland waters
Gustaya river network of the country covered its territory, like blue web. In Azerbaijan, there are 8400 large and small rivers. Of these, 850 have a length greater than 5 km. Total 24 rivers have a length of 100 km.
Kura and Araz largest rivers of the Caucasus, are the main sources of irrigation and hydropower. The Kura River originates on the northeast slope of Mount Gyzylgyadik, on a plot of maximum elevations in the 2740 meters. The river flows through the territory of Georgia, enters the territory of Azerbaijan. Flowing through the Kura- Araz lowland, flows into the Caspian Sea. The total length of Chickens — 1515 km, in the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic, its length is 906 km. Basin area — 188,000 square kilometers. Built on the Kura River Mingachevir, Shamkir and Enikend reservoirs, dams, hydroelectric power plants. With drawn from the reservoir Minchechevir the Upper Karabakh and Upper Shirvan canals irrigated land Kur-Araz lowland. Araz River originates in Turkey not to Bingelskom ridge near the town of Sabirabad (village Sugovushan) meets the Kura River. Its length sostavlyaet1072 km, basin area — 102 thousand square kilometers. Samur — the largest river in northeastern Azerbaijan. It originates in the territory of Dagestan, at an altitude of 3600 meters and flows into the Caspian Sea. Its length is 216 km, basin area — 4.4 thousand square kilometers. Along the river Samur, the Caspian Sea and the river flow Gusar chay, Qudyal chay, Vyalvyalya chay, Sumgait chay, Vilash chay, Lenkeran chay and Astara chay.
In Azerbaijan are many mountain rivers, most of them are fed by snow and rain. Small river Balaken chay, Tala chay, Katekh chay, Kurmuk chay, Kish chay and other channel which begins with the Greater Caucasus, Alazan — Ayrichay Valley and connected to the Alazan Ayrichay. Originating from the Lesser Caucasus Agstafachay, Tovuzchay, Asrikchay, Zyayyamchay, Shamkirchay, Ganjachay, Kyuryakchay, Terterchay joined the Kura. Akerichay, Ohchuchay Arpachay and the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Nakhchivan chay, Alinja chay, Gilan chay, Ordubad chay flow into the Araz. On the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan are about 250 lakes with fresh and salt water , which differ in terms of nutrition and education. Of them can be called glacial origin Tufangel, landslide and landslip origin Gey, Maralgol, Garagel, Batabat; Aghgol lake, Sarysu, Mehman, Ajigabul that appeared as a result of tectonic subsidence, the largest salt lake — Adzhynour, Boyukshor, and other Binaqadi.

The vegetation cover
Territoriy Republic of Azerbaijan has a rich and rare flora. A relatively small area there are almost all common types of plants in the world. Approximately 450 species growing in Azerbaijan higher, sporistyh and flowering plants are combined in 125 detachments and 920 floors. The total number of species of flora of Azerbaijan, unlike other Caucasian republics, richer. Occurring in the territory of Azerbaijan species accounts for 66 % of the total growing plant species in the Caucasus. Along with widespread in the Caucasus and other regions of plant species in the flora of Azerbaijan are growing in sufficient quantities only in Azerbaijan and its characteristic relatively small area of about 240 endemic species. Spread vegetation cause physical and geographical formation region, climatic conditions of modern land, vertical zoning and other factors. Thus, in the lower part of the republic until the 200-meter hill developed desert, semi-desert and wetland plant species. Grouping desert vegetation types observed mainly on the shores of the Caspian Sea, south-eastern Shirvan, Mil, Mugan and Shirvan plains. Depending on soil salinity, there are widespread species such as sarsazan, solyanokolosnik, petrosimoniya. The semi-desert vegetation is widespread in Shirvan, Salyan, Mugan, Mil plains and Karabakh, as well as in the Araz, Jeyranchol Gobustan plains, as zonal formation, semi-desert sagebrush area is an advantage. From other formations are most common garagan (Kura — Araz) and dengiz (Gobustan Nakhchivan). Other plants, the most common in the semi-desert — bulbous bluegrass, Japanese brome, hard chaff Mortuk east, cereal grasses and some herbs (Swede, solyanokolosnik, Potashnik, Petrosimoniya). For these sites are characterized by riparian forests. The forests, distributed mainly in the valleys of the Kura, Araz and Qabyrry constitute oak, maple, ash, willow , and others.
In plains at the foot of the mountains of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains, at an altitude of 200 to 600, 700, sometimes 1,200 meters distributed mainly annual and perennial xerophytic plants and bushes. At higher levels, at an altitude of 1200-1800 meters, there are forests. The total area of ​​the Republic of Azerbaijan is 86, 6 million hectares. The total area of ​​forest is Azerbaijani 1213.7 thousand hectares. Of these forested area is 989,500 hectares, which is 11.4 % of the total territory. Per capita is approximately 0,12 ha, which is 4 times (0,48 ha) is less than the corresponding average globally.
Although Azerbaijan forest area are small, they are rich in species. The forests grow 435 species of trees and shrubs, 70 of them are endemic. For the entire territory of the republic is characterized by deciduous forests. This forest type is most common in the low to mid- mountainous parts of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, Talysh Mountains. At an altitude of 600-1600 meters in many places they form a single belt. On other parts of the forest are meadows and form bands. Forests consist of three species of trees — beech, hornbeam and oak. They make up 82.6 % of the total forest cover. Apart from these, also grow maple, linden, alder, poplar, willow, elm, and other deciduous trees. Coniferous ( needle ) trees account for 1.7 % of all the forests of the country. In Azerbaijan, naturally grown trees of 107 species, of which 7 — conifers (needle). These include a long-barreled, with a solid and fertile smell of juniper, pine Hooked, Eldar pine, European linden black. The Republic of Azerbaijan is the birthplace of the rare species of trees and shrubs. Black lime, as relict plant in the third period — a rare gem forests. This tree is the most common in the south of the Greater Caucasus (Gabala), southeast (Pirgulu, Shemakha). Survivor tis never occupied large areas. Natural homeland is Eldar Eldar pine recess Jeyranchol foothills. Growing in Talysh relict and rare trees of the third period — ironwood, Lankaran acacia, chestnut oak, Caucasian persimmon, boxwood, hyrcanian figs hyrcanian maple, zelkova, Lapina — indescribable beauty of nature’s gifts.

Animal World
Azerbaydjan with its inherent complex fauna is at the crossroads of several zoogeographic poles. Here adapted to local nature and enriched fauna republic some species from neighboring areas — Iran, Central Asia, the Mediterranean Sea. With a variety of natural conditions in the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan fauna is also represented different species. In Azerbaijan, 97 species of mammals, 357 species of birds, 67 species of reptiles and amphibians, 97 species of fish, more than 15 thousand species of invertebrates, 1 species cyclostomata animals.
Fauna lowland parts represented by numerous mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds.
Mammals can be found here gazelles wild boar, wolf, fox, badger , wild cat, hare and other reptiles — swamp, Caspian and Mediterranean tortoise, striped lizards, and ordinary water snake, viper, amphibians — different types of frogs, many species of insects, from birds — partridge, pheasant, eagle Turaj (mountain partridge), various ducks and geese, swans , kashkaldaka, Sultan chickens Guta with curly feather and other birds. Besides the animals living in medium and high altitudes of the plains, these areas are characterized by East Caucasian goat, Caucasian red deer, European gazelle, Caucasian brown bear, bird — bearded, golden eagle, falcon Caucasian, Caucasian tetra Caucasian ular and other fauna. In the «Red Book» of Azerbaijan Republic includes 108 species , including 14 species of mammals, 36 species of birds, 13 species of amphibians and reptiles, 5 species of fish and 40 species of insects.

Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea — the world’s largest closed lake plays an important role in the life of the Azerbaijani people and the unique physical- geographical indicators. Suffice to say that the flora and fauna of the Caspian Sea is rich in endemic species. For example, 90 % of sturgeon in the world other than its antiquity from other fish species are found in this sea. Specific geographical landscape created favorable recreational conditions. Sea stretches along a meridian in the form of the Latin letter S, is located between 47 ° 17 ‘east longitude and 36 ° 33′ west longitude. The sea across the meridian is about 1,200 km, width — 310 the latitude and smaller, respectively, are 435 and 195 km. Due to periodic changes in the level of the Caspian Sea level changes its surface (mirror) and the volume of water. The present level of the sea below sea level is 26.75 meters On this level the sea area is 392600 km2, the volume of water is 78,648 km3, which is 44 % of the total resources of the lake waters in the world. Its maximum depth — 1025 meters, can be compared with the Black, Baltic Sea and Yellow Sea, the Caspian Sea deeper Adriatic, Aegean, and other Tyrrhenian Seas. Azerbaijani part of the area covers central and southern part of the sea, salinity Caspian water differs from that of the oceans. Salinity in the northern part is 5-6 , middle and southern parts of the 12,6 — 13.5 ppm. Existing in Azerbaijan 300 mud volcanoes, more than 170 islands make up and underwater volcanoes in the Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea. Especially a lot of them on the southern Caspian Sea.
Uniqueness and diversity of natural conditions are the reason that still remained in the Caspian representatives of rare species of flora and fauna. The Caspian Azeri sector 171 species of phytoplankton (algae), 40 species of zooplankton, 258 species fitdentos, 91 species macrozoodentos 80 species and subspecies of fish belonging to 14 families. The number of species of fish most Carp — 42 species, gudgeons — 17 Salmonid 2, sturgeon -5 species.
Fish fauna of the Caspian 4, 31 species and 45 subspecies endemic. Most of the endemic species recorded in the Middle Caspian. Approximately 40 species and subspecies of fish intended for fishing. Constitute the general basis ichthyomass sprat (80%), the rest are from mullet, silversides, and gudgeon. Among fish, endangered and included in the «Red Book» of the republic — Caspian lamprey, spotted fish, Southern Caspian Porus (white eye), saber fish, sea cif. In recent years, were endangered Caspian salmon, white salmon, khramulya, Shamayko, shibrit and garasol. In the marine fauna of the Caspian Sea is the only mammal — the Caspian seal. It is the smallest of all existing seals. Caspian seals from 1.5 million at the beginning of the 20th century decreased by the end of the century up to 300-400 thousand in 1993 Caspian seal is listed in the «Red Book».
At various biotypes and Caspian coastal recorded 320 species of birds, of which 37 — waterfow , 109 — and 156 wetland — land .

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We are doing planned trekking tours to Babadagh Mountain and trips to National Park like Hirkan, Shirvan, Shahdagh and other.
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Azerbaijani cuisine is one of the tastiest cuisines in the world and the recipes are somewhat similar to those of people who live in the Caucasus region. But the Azeri’s retain their own unique way through the flavour, method of preparation and the ingredients they use in the local preparations. Meat and fish are used in rich quantities along with vegetarian preparations.The dishes of Azerbaijan have become so famous that now they form an integral part of the lives of the people in the neighbouring countries. Their specialities like chykhyrtma, khashil, dolma, bozbash, piti, pilau, bozartma, shashlyk and govurma are well known and tried by the world’s best chefs.
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