The vegetation cover
Territoriy Republic of Azerbaijan has a rich and rare flora. A relatively small area there are almost all common types of plants in the world. Approximately 450 species growing in Azerbaijan higher, sporistyh and flowering plants are combined in 125 detachments and 920 floors. The total number of species of flora of Azerbaijan, unlike other Caucasian republics, richer. Occurring in the territory of Azerbaijan species accounts for 66 % of the total growing plant species in the Caucasus. Along with widespread in the Caucasus and other regions of plant species in the flora of Azerbaijan are growing in sufficient quantities only in Azerbaijan and its characteristic relatively small area of about 240 endemic species. Spread vegetation cause physical and geographical formation region, climatic conditions of modern land, vertical zoning and other factors. Thus, in the lower part of the republic until the 200-meter hill developed desert, semi-desert and wetland plant species. Grouping desert vegetation types observed mainly on the shores of the Caspian Sea, south-eastern Shirvan, Mil, Mugan and Shirvan plains. Depending on soil salinity, there are widespread species such as sarsazan, solyanokolosnik, petrosimoniya. The semi-desert vegetation is widespread in Shirvan, Salyan, Mugan, Mil plains and Karabakh, as well as in the Araz, Jeyranchol Gobustan plains, as zonal formation, semi-desert sagebrush area is an advantage. From other formations are most common garagan (Kura — Araz) and dengiz (Gobustan Nakhchivan). Other plants, the most common in the semi-desert — bulbous bluegrass, Japanese brome, hard chaff Mortuk east, cereal grasses and some herbs (Swede, solyanokolosnik, Potashnik, Petrosimoniya). For these sites are characterized by riparian forests. The forests, distributed mainly in the valleys of the Kura, Araz and Qabyrry constitute oak, maple, ash, willow , and others.
In plains at the foot of the mountains of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains, at an altitude of 200 to 600, 700, sometimes 1,200 meters distributed mainly annual and perennial xerophytic plants and bushes. At higher levels, at an altitude of 1200-1800 meters, there are forests. The total area of the Republic of Azerbaijan is 86, 6 million hectares. The total area of forest is Azerbaijani 1213.7 thousand hectares. Of these forested area is 989,500 hectares, which is 11.4 % of the total territory. Per capita is approximately 0,12 ha, which is 4 times (0,48 ha) is less than the corresponding average globally.
Although Azerbaijan forest area are small, they are rich in species. The forests grow 435 species of trees and shrubs, 70 of them are endemic. For the entire territory of the republic is characterized by deciduous forests. This forest type is most common in the low to mid- mountainous parts of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, Talysh Mountains. At an altitude of 600-1600 meters in many places they form a single belt. On other parts of the forest are meadows and form bands. Forests consist of three species of trees — beech, hornbeam and oak. They make up 82.6 % of the total forest cover. Apart from these, also grow maple, linden, alder, poplar, willow, elm, and other deciduous trees. Coniferous ( needle ) trees account for 1.7 % of all the forests of the country. In Azerbaijan, naturally grown trees of 107 species, of which 7 — conifers (needle). These include a long-barreled, with a solid and fertile smell of juniper, pine Hooked, Eldar pine, European linden black. The Republic of Azerbaijan is the birthplace of the rare species of trees and shrubs. Black lime, as relict plant in the third period — a rare gem forests. This tree is the most common in the south of the Greater Caucasus (Gabala), southeast (Pirgulu, Shemakha). Survivor tis never occupied large areas. Natural homeland is Eldar Eldar pine recess Jeyranchol foothills. Growing in Talysh relict and rare trees of the third period — ironwood, Lankaran acacia, chestnut oak, Caucasian persimmon, boxwood, hyrcanian figs hyrcanian maple, zelkova, Lapina — indescribable beauty of nature’s gifts.